Sell Levamisole Hcl CAS 16595-80-5
Levamisole hydrochloride, the hydrochloride salt of a water-soluble imidazothiazole derivative, selectively activates acetylcholine receptor ion channels in nerve and muscle of nematodes (EC50 = 6 µM). It has anthelminthic and immunomodulating activities.
Levamisole HCL Powder Briefing
Levamisole hydrochloride Powder is an insect repellant and immunomodulator. antifungal.
Levamisole Hydrochloride Powder (Levamisole HCL Powder), is an anthelmintic (anti-worm) agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs and sheep. In 1971 it was found to have immunostimulatory properties and investigation into its use in humans began to expand. Currently, Levamisole HCL is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections and cancer. It has beneficial effects on host defense mechanisms and restores depressed immune responses in animals and humans. Another interesting use of levamisole in humans is as a treatment for common warts (verruca vulgaris).
News of its anthelmintic efficacy and immune system benefits has been known among aquatic hobbyists for years. The problem however, is that there is not much in the way of definitive information on its use and application in the hobby. Anecdotal accounts of how it has worked for those ‘outside the box’ aquarists who first braved its use with fish, and accounts of personal experience with Levamisole in individual aquariums are helpful, but the ‘your mileage may vary’ factor is immense. Word about its usefulness in treating internal parasites in the ornamental fish trade has spread, but information regarding its use is limited and sometimes conflicting. From the information I have found thus far, Levamisole HCL Powder is safe to use in aquaria and effective against many internal parasites, especially nematodes, when used in appropriate dosages. It does not harm the bio-filter, plants, invertebrates or uninfected fish. As an added benefit, it boosts the immune competence of fish, humans, large animals, birds and some reptiles.
This article hopes to pull together what scientific information is available, a bunch of individual accounts, apply some common sense, and put together in one place a helpful guide to the use of Levamisole for treating aquarium fish.
Levamisole hydrochloride power sample Basic info:
Product Name: Levamisole hydrochloride
Synonyms: (-)-Tetramisole Hydrochloride , (-)-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazole Hydrochloride
EINECS number: 240-654-6
Specific rotation: -128 º (c=5, H2O)
Refractive index: -126 ° (C=1, H2O)
Storage conditions: 2-8°C
Usage: Suitable for driving roundworms, hookworms, Malay filariasis infections
Shows both immunostimulant and immunosuppressant effects, depending on several controllable factors. Very effective in treatment of ascariasis (hookworm infestation). Useful in chemotherapy of colorectal cancers, possibly due to its stimulation of IL-1 production and direct activation of macrophages.
Levamisole hydrochloride is suitable as an inhibitor of various mammalian alkaline phosphatases.
- Intestinal alkaline phsophatases are only slightly inhibited
- Biological response modifier with anthelmintic activity
- Stereospecific inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase.
How does Levamisole HCL Powder work?
How does Levamisole HCL Powder work as an antiparasitic agent?
Levamisole HCL Powder is absorbed through the gut, can also be absorbed through the skin and is distributed throughout the body. Levamisole affects the neurotransmitters and paralyzes the worm (spastic paralysis). The fish then passes the inactive worms. Good gravel vacuuming is advised after treatment to remove the paralyzed (but still live) worms. It is not ovicidal, which means it will not affect eggs already present, but it will affect the larval stage of the worm. To ensure complete eradication of the parasite treat again after remaining eggs have hatched.
How does Levamisole HCL Powder work as an immunomodulator?
The mechanism of action for its immunostimulating effects are not well understood. It is believed that it restores cell-mediated immune function in peripheral T-lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis by monocytes. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. There are multitudes of medical studies being done with its use in humans and animals, the goal being to attain understanding of its immunomodulating mechanism. The mechanism will be defined, with time. However, at the time of the writing of this article, there is no complete answer to this question. For us, it is enough to know that it does stimulate immune function in fish that are suffering due to parasites or disease.
What if I overdose my fish?
The LD-50 (the lethal dose of a compound for 50% of animals exposed) of levamisole is 250 mg/l per 24 hours. This level of dosage is much higher than that which is prescribed for use in a freshwater bath (the method used in our fish tanks). Only extreme overdosing with this medication will result in death to your fish. Few accounts of adverse side effects in aquaria have been noted even with much higher than currently accepted appropriate dosing.
How long will it stay in my fish and how do I get it out of my tank?
Levamisole HCL Powder is rapidly absorbed into the digestive system. Less than 6% of the medication is excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Half-lives for several species have been recorded:
Cattle: 4 – 6 hours
Swine: 3.5 – 6.8 hours
Dogs: 1.8 – 4 hours
I have not been able to locate any studies that determine the half-life of Levamisole HCL in fish. If you know of any, please post a comment to this article.
Absorption is systemic within 3 – 4 hours. Within three days 70% of the medication will be gone from the fish via its excretory system. The vast majority of the compound will have been metabolized by your fish. The remainder can be removed by water changes and/or adding activated charcoal to your filtration system.
Levamisole HCL Powder Some helpful conversions:
For 100% Levamisole Hydrochloride powder (Levasole, Soluble Pig wormer)
1 teaspoon = 4 grams
.5 teaspoon = 2 grams
.25 teaspoon = 1 gram
1 US Gallon = 3.78 Liters
Here is where our chemistry comes in.
The molecular formula for Levamisole is C11H12N2S
The molecular formula for Levamisole HCL is C11H12N2S•HCl
Because we know the formula we can figure out the Grams/mole off the periodic table which is:
~204.32g/mole (rounded to hundreds) for levamisole
~240.78g/mole for Levamisole HCL because of the HCL (hydrochloride) attachment.
The active anthelmintic ingredient is the Levamisole, not the Hydrochloride, so to attain a 2ppm concentration of Levamisole using Levamisole HCL we will need more Levamisole HCL because of the size (weight) of the molecule. For example, if we know we need 50mg (at 2mg/L this will treat a 25L sized tank, or about 6 gallons) of Levamisole but we are using Levamisole HCL, to acheive the same concentration of the Levamisole base we need to do some conversion which works like this:
then divide that by 204.32 (weight in grams of Levamisole)
to get moles which is 2.447.
Then because its 1:1 (1 mole levamisole each (basically)) you take
2.447 times 240.78 (so you get correct weight for added HCL)
and you get .0589g which is ~59mg.
Thus 59 mg of Levamisole HCl is equivalent to 50 mg of levamisole base.
2ppm = 2 mg/L Levamisole base
which converts to:
2.36 mg/L Levamisole HCL or
~9 mg/Gallon or 90 mg/10 gallons
How do you know how many milligrams of Levamisole you need? More calculating:
We need 2.36 mg/L (or 9 mg/Gallon) of Levamisole HCL to treat our tank at the recommended dosage.
If we measure our tanks in Liters:
2.36 x (the size of your tank in liters) = mg/L of Levamisole HCL to treat your tank.
If we measure our tanks in gallons:10 gallons = ~38 Liters
For a 10g tank that means:
2.36 x 38 = 89.68 mg or ~90mg of Levamisole HCL will treat 10 gallons with a 2 ppm concentration.
Going by chefkeith’s calculator a very small amount of levamisole powder is needed to treat a 10g tank (.076 grams, or .019 teaspoons). Now I don’t know about you, but I don’t own measuring devices that will enable me to accurately measure that tiny amount. Since overdosing Levamisole HCL (even massively so!) has been common practice for a long time, I generally eyeball my powder measurements into usable sizes. Since a quarter teaspoon is about 1 gram, and we need roughly one tenth of that amount for a 10g qtank treatment I do the following:
- Measure a level 1/4 teaspoon onto a smooth surface.
- Take a razor blade and divide that quarter teaspoon into 10 relatively even piles. Each tiny pile is one treatment for 10 gallons.
- Store each tiny pile in tiny plastic baggies (or tin foil) with a ’10g’ label in an opaque container.
Not very scientific, I know. But it does get me close, and I am confident enough in the safety of the medication that I have no fear for my fish. In fact, prior to this article, I had previously treated fish with Levamisole concentrations as high as 800 mg/10 gallons and saw no negative effects.
For those who cannot access Levamisole HCL, Flubendazole has been used as an effective alternative for cammallanus and other nematode infections. I’ve read it will kill snails, so if you have a thriving snail population that would be a problem